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Animals Kingdom I

The following is a study guide for the biology practical review that concerns the Kingdom Animalia. Taxonomy is heavily involved. Pictures with details as to what you need to know for the practical scheduled nearing final exams.
Kingdom Animalia
Characteristics of Phylum Porifera:
-**They have pores
-Are marine
-Some live in fresh water or the ocean
-Non-motile, meaning they are "attached"
-They filter feed
-Asymmetrical (radial)
-Diploblastic containing 2 germ layers: endoderm and ectoderm
-Reproduce sexually and asexually
-Have collar cells (choanocytes)
-Possess spicule - make up the skeleton
-Have one opening
Cell level organization

Examples in Phylum Porifera: bath sponge, finger sponge, basket sponge, grantia


Bath Sponge
Phylum Porifera
Kingdom Animalia




Finger Sponge
Phylum Porifera
Kingdom Animalia




Basket Sponge
Phylum Porifera
Kingdom Animalia




Grantia
Phylum Porifera
Kingdom Animalia



Know the drawings of the three types of cells: collar cell "choanocyte", amoebocyte "wandering cell", and epidermal cell "epidermis."



Characteristics of Phylum Coelenterata (Cnidaria)

-Live in ocean water
-Radial symmetry
-Diploblastic
-**Possess stinging cells (nematocysts)
-Possess alternations of generations---> sex ---> asex ---> sex ---> asex---> & continues. Occurs in all classes except in class Anthozoa
-Asexual= attached -->polyp (non-motile)
-Sexual= free swimming ---> medusa
-Extracellular digestion
Tissue level organization

Class Hydrozoa
Examples of the Hydrozoa class would be Hydra, Obelia, and Portugese Man-O-War. View Obelia and Hydra through the microscope. Portuguese Man-of-War is on this page.




Portuguese Man-O-War
Class Hydrozoa
Phylum Coelenterata
Kingdom Animalia





Class Scyphozoa
Example of the class Scyphozoa would be the Jellyfish.



Jellyfish
Class Scyphozoa
Phylum Coelenterata
Kingdom Animalia



Class Anthozoa

Examples of the class Anthozoa would include the sea fan, sea anemone, and the coral.


Sea fan
Class Anthozoa
Phylum Colenterata
Kingdom Animalia







Sea anemone
Class Anthozoa
Phylum Coelenterata
Kingdom Animalia




Coral--->Sometimes called stag horn coral
Class Anthozoa
Phylum Coelenterata
Kingdom Animalia





Brain Coral
Class Anthozoa
Phylum Coelenterata
Kingdom Animalia




Organ Pipe Coral
Class Anthozoa
Phylum Coelenterata
Kingdom Animalia



Characteristics to the Phylum Platyhelminthes---> Flat Worms

-Bilateral Symmetry
-Triploblastic
-**Flattened dorso ventrally
-**Excretory system with flame cells (protonephridia)
-Most forms are parasitic
-Most species are hermaphroditic-male and female sex organs present
3 classes to know:
An example to class Turbellaria is the Planaria.

Examples to the Class Trematoda, which are parasitic, are flukes & liver flukes.


Sheep Liver Fluke
Class Trematoda
Phylum Platyhelminthes
Kingdom Animalia




Examples of Class Cestoda, which are parasitic, are the tapeworms.



Tape worm
Class Cestoda
Phylum Platyhelminthes
Kingdom Animalia




Tape worm
Class Cestoda
Phylum Platyhelminthes
Kingdom Animalia

 

Flatworm (Platyhelminthes) Pictures & Labeling

 


Characteristics to the Phylum Nemathelminthes---> Round Worms

-Tube within a tube body plan
-**Pseudocoelom present
-Bilateral Symmetry
-Triploblastic
-**Non metameric (no segments)
-Dieocious- male or female sex organs present


Horse Hair Round Worm
Phylum Nemathelminthes
Kingdom Animalia




Ascaris (Round worm)
"Identify it as Ascaris in lab practical."
Phylum Nemathelminthes
Kingdom Animalia



Characteristics of Phylum Annelida-->The Segmented Worms

-tube within a tube body plan
-live in water and on land
-**Segmented with repetitive parts
-bilateral symmetry
-triploblastic
-several well developed systems
digestive
nervous
excretory
circulatory
reproductive


Examples in the Phylum Annelida include the Earthworm, Leech, Sandworm (Clamworm), and Lugworm.


Earthworm
Phylum Annelida
Kingdom Animalia




Leech
Phylum Annelida
Kingdom Animalia




Sandworm or Clamworm
Phylum Annelida
Kingdom Animalia




Lug worm
Phylum Annelida
Kingdom Animalia






The earthworm model will be part of the lab practical. There are specific parts to its anatomy that must be studied. I am able to show you the labels in the pictures of the earthworm model. It is recommended that you view the earthworm model before seeing the pictures, just so that you will get an idea of what you are looking at. Also study your drawings in the lab manual. It might come in handy.

Click to see the

General Biology 2 Lab Practical Earthworm Model





Characteristics of the Phylum Mollusca--Soft Body Animals

-**A soft body usually covered by a dorsal calcareous shell.
-**A broad flat muscular foot, located ventrally which can be used for locomotion.
-Has a mantle to protect the visceral mass

Examples of the phylum Mollusca include Chiton, Snails, Slugs (without shells), clams, mussels, oysters, octopus (without shell), squid (without shell), chamber nautilus, conch, abalone


Chiton
Phylum Mollusca
Kingdom Animalia




Snail
Phylum Mollusca
Kingdom Animalia




Slugs (w/out shells)
Phylum Mollusca
Kingdom Animalia




Tooth Shells
Phylum Mollusca
Kingdom Animalia



Clams
Phylum Mollusca
Kingdom Animalia




Mussels
Phylum Mollusca
Kingdom Animalia




Oysters
Phylum Mollusca
Kingdom Animalia




Octopus (w/out shell)
Phylum Mollusca
Kingdom Animalia




Squid (w/out shell)
Phylum Mollusca
Kingdom Animalia




Chamber Nautilus
Phylum Mollusca
Kingdom Animalia




Conch
Phylum Mollusca
Kingdom Animalia




Abalone
Phylum Mollusca
Kingdom Animalia






The mussel model will be part of the lab practical. There are specific parts to its anatomy that must be studied. I am able to show you the labels in the pictures of the mussel model. It is recommended to see the model first before viewing these pictures, just to get an idea of what you are looking at. Also study your drawings in the lab manual. It might come in handy.

General Biology 2 Lab Practical Mussel Model




Characteristics of the Phylum Arthropoda

-**Joint footed
-Body is segment
-Exoskeleton (made of chiton)
-Specialized mouth parts
-Simple (single image)/compound (multiple images) eyes
-Gas exchange (Respiration)
-Excretory glands


Class Crustacea characteristics:

-Includes all characteristics of phylum arthropoda
-**2 body segments (cephalothorax & abdomen)
-**4 pairs of walking legs
-gills for respiration (marine)
-Green glands for excretion

Examples of the class Crustacea include the Lobster, Crayfish, Shrimp, Crab, and Sow bug (common called roli poli)


Lobster
Class Crustacea
Phylum Arthropoda
Kingdom Animalia




Crayfish
Class Crustacea
Phylum Arthropoda
Kingdom Animalia



The crayfish model will be part of the lab practical. There are specific parts to its anatomy that must be studied. I am able to show you the labels in the pictures of the crayfish model. It is recommended to see the model first before viewing these pictures, just to get an idea of what you are looking at. Also study your drawings in the lab manual. It might come in handy.

See this lab model link

The Crayfish Model Parts To Know




Mantis Shrimp and a Shrimp
Class Crustacea
Phylum Arthropoda
Kingdom Animalia




Blue Crab
Class Crustacea
Phylum Arthropoda
Kingdom Animalia





An example to the class Chilopoda is the Centipede.


The Centipede
Class Chilopoda
Phylum Arthropoda
Kingdom Animalia



An example to the class Diplopoda is the Millipede.


The Millipede
Class Diplopoda
Phylum Arthropoda
Kingdom Animalia



Characteristics of the Class Insecta:

-**3 body segment (head, thorax, and abdomen)
-3 pairs of walking legs
-Respire by trachea
-Diecious
-**Excrete through malphigian tubules

Examples of the class Insecta include the Grasshopper, Flies, Bees, Wasps, Hornets, Butterfly, Beetles, Praying Mantis, and Waterbug.


Grasshopper
Class Insecta
Phylum Arthropoda
Kingdom Animalia

The grasshopper model will be part of the lab practical. There are specific parts to its anatomy that must be studied. I am able to show you the labels in the pictures of the grasshopper model. It is recommended to see the model first before viewing these pictures, just to get an idea of what you are looking at. Also study your drawings in the lab manual. It might come in handy.

See this lab model link

General Biology 2 Grasshopper Model





Beetle
Class Insecta
Phylum Arthropoda
Kingdom Animalia




The Praying Mantis
Class Insecta
Phylum Arthropoda
Kingdom Animalia




The Waterbug
Class Insecta
Phylum Arthropoda
Kingdom Animalia



Examples of the class Arachnida are the Spiders, Ticks, Scorpions, and Brown Recluse (spider).


Spider
Class Arachnida
Phylum Arthropoda
Kingdom Animalia





Scorpion
Class Arachnida
Phylum Arthropoda
Kingdom Animalia



An example of the class Xiphoneura would be Horseshoe Crabs.



The Horse Shoe Crabs
Class Xiphoneura
Phylum Arthropoda
Kingdom Animalia



Characteristics of the Phylum Echninodermata:

-Pentaradially symmetry
-All live in water (marine) ocean
-Possess a water vascular system (madreporite)
-Spiny Skin

Examples in the phylum Echinodermata are Starfish (sea star), Brittle star, Sand Dollar, Sea Urchin, and Sea cucumber.







The Starfish
Phylum Echinodermata
Kingdom Animalia




Leather Star
Phylum Echinodermata
Kingdom Animalia



The Brittle Star
Phylum Echinodermata
Kingdom Animalia




Sand Dollar
Phylum Echinodermata
Kingdom Animalia



Sea Urchin
Phylum Echinodermata
Kingdom Animalia



Sea Cucumber
Phylum Echinodermata
Kingdom Animalia





Study the exterior anatomy of the starfish on page 195 of your lab manual(bottom picture).


Project Originally began by Dennis Anderson.
Molecular Models were assembled by DSCC Biology Professor Dr. Billy Williams.
Photography by Jonathon Mooney and Dennis Anderson.

The Lab Notes were produced by Dr. Billy Williams and Dr. Bill Redmond.

Labeled Models appearing in Biology 1110 &1120 were purchased from:

1. Bobbit Laboratories; Burlington, North Carolina

2. CENCO

3. Hubbard Scientific Co; Northbrook, Illinois

4. Nystrom Biological Model Co; Chicago, Illinois

5. Wards Natural Science; Establishment, Inc.