Plant Kingdom


Characteristics of Division Bryophyta

-primitive plants (mosses)
-lack true roots, stems, or leaves
-lacks vascular tissue --> no xylem or phloem
-habitat must be moist and shaded
-usually very small in size
-gametophyte generation is dominant
-given chromosome number of N Haploid

Class Musci (Moss)
Example is the Polytrichum

male polytrichum
Male Polytrichum
Class Musci
Division Bryophyta
Kingdom Plantae


female polytrichum
Female Polytrichum
Class Musci
Division Bryophyta
Kingdom Plantae


Sporophyte of Polytrichum
Sporophyte of Polytrichum
Class Musci
Division Bryophyta
Kingdom Plantae

Alternation of Generation for the Polytrichum


Class Hepaticae (Liverworts)
Example is the Marchantia

-Performs Asexual Reproduction by Gemmae cup
Female Marchantia
Female Marchantia
Female Marchantia

Male Marchantia
Male Marchantia

Marchantia
Marchantia
Class Hepaticae
Division Bryophyta
Kingdom Plantae

Alternation of Generation for Marchantia


Class Anthocerata (Hornworts)
Example is the Anthoceros

Anthoceros
Anthoceros
Anthoceros
Anthoceros
Class Anthocerata
Division Bryophyta
Kingdom Plantae


Characteristics of Division Tracheophyta

-specialized plants
-have true roots, stems, or leaves
-have vascular tissue --> do have xylem (conducts water) and phloem
-variety of habitats
-grow to variety of sizes
-sporophyte generation is dominant
-given chromosome number of 2N --> Diploid
-Have Rhizomes which are 2N, underground stems
-Have Rhizoids, which are 1N.

Subdivision Psilopsida
An example of this subdivision would be the Psilotum (whisk fern)

Psilotum
Psilotum
Subdivision Psilopsida
Division Tracheophyta
Kingdom Plantae




Subdivision Lycopsida
An example of this subdivision would be the Lycopodium (ground pine) or (club moss).
-Can be found in wooded areas.

Lycopodium
Lycopodium
Lycopodium
Subdivision Lycopsida
Division Tracheophyta
Kingdom Plantae




Subdivision Sphenopsida
An example of this subdivision would be the Equisetum
Deposits of silicon dioxide in cell wall.

Equisetum
Equisetum
Subdivision Sphenopsida
Division Tracheophyta
Kingdom Plantae




Subdivision Pteropsida
Class Felicinae
An example of this class would be Polypodium (fern).
Know the alternation of generation and parts of the fern from your manual page 144.


Polypodium (Fern)
Polypodium (Fern)
Class Felicinae
Subdivision Pteropsida
Division Tracheophyta
Kingdom Plantae

Polypodium (Fern) Life History
Polypodium (Fern) Life History, showing the fronds (2N) and rhizome (2N)
Class Felicinae
Subdivision Pteropsida
Division Tracheophyta
Kingdom Plantae

Polypodium (Fern) Life History
Polypodium (Fern) Life History, showing the prothallia (1N) which are the sex organs
Class Felicinae
Subdivision Pteropsida
Division Tracheophyta
Kingdom Plantae

Polypodium (Fern) Life History
Polypodium (Fern) Life History, showing the prothallia sporophyte(2N)
Class Felicinae
Subdivision Pteropsida
Division Tracheophyta
Kingdom Plantae


Class Gymnospermae meaning "Naked Seed"
Characteristics:
-Naked seed
-Seed born on cone
-Archegonia present with eggs.
-Germinations are short
-Single fertilization
An example of this class would be Genus Pinus .
Seed is born on the cone
"Conifers" - produce cones
Leaves - needles bundle of 3 is called a fascicle.
Male cones are 2N. Other names for male cone are:
Microstrobilus
Pollen cone
Staminate cone
They develop in the spring

Male Cone
Male Cone
Class Gymnospermae
Subdivision Pteropsida
Division Tracheophyta
Kingdom Plantae


The female cone:
Other names include: Megastrobilus, Carpellate cone, Ovulate cone
There are three types of cones: a 1st year, 2nd year, and 3rd year.
The 1st year female cone has a protective layer between the pollen (male) grain and the egg, which is called the nucellus. Germination occurs when the pollen tube pierces the nucellus in order for the pollen to get to the egg, which now is fertilization.
The 2nd year female cone is completely closed. The carpells close trapping the sperm pollen inside where it is becoming a zygote to form a seed.
The 3rd year female cone opens up to release the seeds.

Female Cone 1st year
Female Cone 1st year (Pollination cone)

 

Class Gymnospermae
Subdivision Pteropsida
Division Tracheophyta
Kingdom Plantae

Female Cone 2nd year
Female Cone 2nd year (Fertilization cone)
Class Gymnospermae
Subdivision Pteropsida
Division Tracheophyta
Kingdom Plantae

Female Cone 3rd year
Female Cone 3rd year (Seed cone)
Class Gymnospermae
Subdivision Pteropsida
Division Tracheophyta
Kingdom Plantae




Class Angiospermae
Characteristics:
-Covered seed
-Seeds are covered by the flower or a fruit
-No archegonium present
-Germination is long
-Double fertilization (3N) structure

Study page 154 parts of the mature seed.
There are four sets of floral organs:
1. Sepals, collectively called Calyx.
2. Petals, collectively called Corolla.
*3. Stamen, male reproductive organ with two parts known as the Anther and Filament.
*4. Pistil, female reproductive organ with three parts called the Stigma, Style, and Ovary.
*Are necessary for reproduction to occur.
Male anthers produce pollen. Occurs in self pollenation.
Pollen is setting on top of the stigma awaiting for the female to accept it.

Angiosperm Female Gametophyte Development

 


An 8 nucleated stage occurs. See the last phase pictures for labeled parts.

fusion nucleus
What is happening:
1. The two polar nuclei will fuse together to form the fusion nucleus (2N).
2. Sperm #1 (1N) fertilizes the fusion nucleus (2N) to form the Primary Endosperm Nucleus (3N).
3. Sperm #2 (1N) will fertilize the egg to form a zygote 2N.

phase of floral morphology
This phase of floral morphology shows the pollen tube as the male pollen passes the inner and outer integuments (not labeled but see pg 155 pictures) to get to the egg and the polar nuclei for fertilization within the flower.

model of flower
A model of a flower with some parts that you need to familiarize yourself with for the practical.  Petals are collectively called the corolla.  Sepals are collectively called the calyx.

model of flower
Another model that you need to be familiar with for the lab practical.


Characteristics of Dicots:
1. They have a woody stem
2. They have multiples of 4 or 5 flower parts
3. They have palmately veins
4. One large vascular bundle

Click each link to see individual parts of this model labeled with function.

dicots

Parts: Parenchyma (for food storage)
Collenchyma (support)
Sclerenchyma (support and protection)
Chlorenchyma (chlorophyll)
Xylem (transport water)
Phloem (transport food)
Vascular Cambium (secretes a ring of xylem each year (only in dicots)
Epidermis (outer most layer for protection)
dicots
dicots
dicots


Characteristics of Monocots:
1. They have a herbaceous (leafy or green) stem
2. They have 3 or multiples of 3 flower parts
3. They have parallel veins
4. Many scattered vascular bundles (xylem & phloem)

Click each link to see individual parts of this model labeled with function.

monocots

Parts: Parenchyma (for food storage)
Collenchyma (support)
Sclerenchyma (support and protection)
Chlorenchyma (chlorophyll)
Xylem (transport water)
Phloem (transport food)
Epidermis (outer most layer for protection)
monocots
monocots
monocots



Study pages 154 & 155 in your lab manual.

In this model of the root, know where this part is located: Meristematic (mitosis/growth)

Meristematic


Project Originally began by Dennis Anderson.
Molecular Models were assembled by DSCC Biology Professor Dr. Billy Williams.
Photography by Jonathon Mooney and Dennis Anderson.

The Lab Notes were produced by Dr. Billy Williams and Dr. Bill Redmond.

Labeled Models appearing in Biology 1110 &1120 were purchased from:

1. Bobbit Laboratories; Burlington, North Carolina

2. CENCO

3. Hubbard Scientific Co; Northbrook, Illinois

4. Nystrom Biological Model Co; Chicago, Illinois

5. Wards Natural Science; Establishment, Inc.