The Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), Human Organs, and The Meiosis Process


model of portion of DNA molecule
This is a model of the portion of the DNA molecule. Notice the labeled components of the molecule with the area of hydrogen bonding (steel rod).




double helix DNA
DNA is a double helix. The center or interior of the molecule consists of paired bases. It is always A - T (adenine - thymine) and G - C (guanine - cytosine). The outside "backbone" of the molecule is composed of repetitive units of deoxyribose sugar [D] and phosphate bonds [rubber band]. Actually DNA is composed of a double strand of units called nucleotides. The nucleotide is labeled in the next picture.


















 

 

A Nucleotide nucleotide



Thoracic-Abdominal Cavity thoracic
abdominal cavity




The Lower Respiratory Tract lower respiratory tract
lower respiratory tract


Position of the Lungs in Relation To Cardiovascular & Digestive Organs lungs in relation to cardiovascular and digestive organs



 

MEIOSIS

meiosis
Various organisms have specialized tissue which undergo meiosis. It could be the zygotes of algae or fungi; the microspore and megaspore mother cells of plants; or spermatogonial and oogonial cells of human beings and other animals.




During the process of meisosis, you begin with a diploid or 2N cell, like a zygote, with two sets of chromosomes in it (2 pair yellow, 2 pair green).




meiosos
2N (Diploid)


The chromosomes become shortened, thickened, and will double themselves.




















meiosis
2N (Diploid)




The chromosomes of these 2N cells will align themselves in the equatorial position of the cell.


















meiosis
2N Diploid





The chromosome pairs are about to divide. The next phase, the chromosomes are pulling apart and cytoplasm is beginning to split between them.







meiosismeiosis























Once this first division is completed you will see two yellow and two green chromosomes within 1N (haploid) cells on opposite sides of each other.








meiosis
meiosis
























Let's look at the new 1N (haploid) cell produced. Each cell has its chromatids or chromosome halves pulled apart. But first they will align themselves in the equatorial position of the cell.











meiosis meiosis

Then the chromosome halves will begin to pull apart with each chromosome half going in opposite directions with the cytoplasm splitting the two cells again.













new 1N haploid new 1N haploid

Each cell produces two new 1N (haploid) cells for a total of 4 (tetrad) from the 2 cells.


Project Originally began by Dennis Anderson.
Molecular Models were assembled by DSCC Biology Professor Dr. Billy Williams.
Photography by Jonathon Mooney and Dennis Anderson.

The Lab Notes were produced by Dr. Billy Williams and Dr. Bill Redmond.

Labeled Models appearing in Biology 1110 &1120 were purchased from:

1. Bobbit Laboratories; Burlington, North Carolina

2. CENCO

3. Hubbard Scientific Co; Northbrook, Illinois

4. Nystrom Biological Model Co; Chicago, Illinois

5. Wards Natural Science; Establishment, Inc.